M. D. Ilić, L. Xie, U. A. Khan and J. M. F. Moura, "Modeling of future cyber–physical energy systems for distributed sensing and control," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 825-838, Jul. 2010.
This paper proposes modeling the rapidly evolving
energy systems as cyber-based physical systems. It introduces a novel
cyber-based dynamical model whose mathematical description
depends on the cyber-technologies supporting the physical
system. The paper discusses how such a model can be used to ensure
full observability through a cooperative information exchange
among its components; this is achieved without requiring
local observability of the system components. The paper also shows how this cyber-physical model is used to develop interactive protocols
between the controllers embedded within the system layers and
the network operator. Our approach leads to a synergistic framework for model-based sensing and
control of future energy systems. The newly
introduced cyber-physical model has network structure-preserving properties
that are key to effective distributed decision making. The aggregate load modeling that we develop using data mining techniques and novel sensing technologies facilitates operations of complex electric power systems.